The Classics, New Century, Part 7c
“Leninism or Marxism?”
What we have with Rosa Luxemburg’s so-called “Leninism or Marxism?”, and Lenin’s reply to it, (downloads are linked below) is a partial record of an attempted comprehensive political mugging of Lenin at an early stage. By 1904 Lenin was already seen as the most clear-minded and exceptional revolutionary leader in the world, including by his opportunist, reformist Russian opponents, and also by the leaders of the well-established, quite large, and legal “Social Democracy” of Germany.
Reading Lenin’s reply it is clear that at this point the gains of the Second Congress had been lost, and that not only Rosa Luxemburg but also the “Pope” of Social Democracy at the time - the German, Karl Kautsky - had turned against Lenin. So had Georgi Plekhanov, one of the founders of Russian socialist exile politics (The Emancipation of Labour Group) and Lenin’s close comrade in their “brilliant three-year campaign” prior to the Second Congress, based around the magazine Iskra, of which Lenin had been the founder and editor.
The Mensheviks had got back into power after their defeat at the 1903 RSDLP Second Congress by special pleading and blackmail. Once inside the political tent, they had forced out the Bolsheviks. The Mensheviks now controlled Iskra, and hardly allowed the Bolsheviks to have any space in it. They controlled the RSDLP Central Committee, and were refusing to hold another Congress. The Mensheviks even wanted to expel Lenin for the fact that he had founded another magazine called Vperyod, which later became Proletary, to carry on the work of the old Iskra.
Here in 1904 we find Rosa Luxemburg, who had in 1900 resoundingly vanquished the chief reformist, Bernstein, now attacking Lenin. It is impossible not to think that she has been deceived into turning 180 degrees in this way, against her natural ally, Lenin, especially in the light of the subsequent history when Lenin and Luxemburg became the two main opponents of the capitulation of the Second International to national chauvinism, Imperialism and war.
Ten years later in 1914 the German Social Democrats under Kautsky voted to support the Imperialist war. Rosa refused, and helped start the Spartacus League – a German equivalent of the Russian Bolsheviks, and the Bolsheviks also refused to support the war. Kautsky sold out and was damned by Lenin in his classic 1918 work “The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky”, but Kautsky continued spreading lies until his death in 1938. Rosa Luxemburg did not sell out and she died a martyr in 1919 at the hands of the reactionary fore-runners of German fascism.
In 1904 it looks as if Lenin is isolated, with only Comrade Galyorka to support him. Yet he stages a comeback, to become in practice the greatest revolutionary leader the world has ever known. How does this happen? From other writings it is clear that Lenin, both before the Congress and after it, was relying not on the top leaders, or on the intellectuals, but upon those much closer to the working-class rank-and-file. Lenin had done what the supporters of Jacob Zuma did from 2005 to 2007 in South Africa. He had made sure that the branches were with him.
With the help of the base, Lenin pulled the superstructure back into shape. The third RSDLP Congress, a firmly Bolshevik Congress, was held on 1905.
Rosa Luxemburg’s essay, when read with the benefit of Lenin’s reply, is revealed as a very poor piece of work indeed. The subsequent history of this document of Rosa’s, as told by MIA, is one of repeated exploitation. It has been reprinted several times but without the inclusion of Lenin’s reply. Rosa was used in her lifetime, to write this false denunciation of Lenin for “military ultra-centralism” and other spurious accusations, and after her death she continued to be so used. The denunciation is false, because there is no opposition between "Leninism" and "Marxism".
The whole story is a classic cases-study in political deception, recovery, damnation and triumph.
Please download and read these texts:
Leninism or Marxism?, Rosa Luxemburg, 1904 (7279 words)
Lenin’s Reply to Rosa Luxemburg, 1904 (4632 words)
Reform or Revolution?, Rosa Luxemburg, 1900 (10250 words)
What Is To Be Done?, Parts B and C, Lenin, 1902 (8369 words)